Artificial Compressibility with Riemann Solvers: Convergence of Limiters on Unstructured Meshes
Keywords:variable density, Godunov-type scheme, 3D unstructured mesh, MUSCL, limiter, artificial compressibility, Riemann solver, convergence
Free-surface flows and other variable density incompressible flows have numerous important applications in engineering.
One way such flows can be modelled is to extend established numerical methods for compressible flows to incompressible flows using the method of artificial compressibility. Artificial compressibility introduces a pseudo-time derivative for pressure and, in each real-time step, the solution advances in pseudo-time until convergence to an incompressible limit - a fundamentally different approach than SIMPLE, PISO, and PIMPLE, the standard methods used in OpenFOAM. Although the artificial compressibility method is widespread in the literature, its application to free-surface flows is not. In this paper, we apply the method to variable density flows on 3D unstructured meshes for the first time, implementing a Godunov-type scheme with MUSCL reconstruction and Riemann solvers, where the free surface gets captured automatically by the contact wave in the Riemann solver. The critical problem in this implementation lies in the slope limiters used in the MUSCL reconstruction step. It is well-known that slope limiters can inhibit convergence to steady state on unstructured meshes; the problem is exacerbated here as convergence in pseudo-time is required not just once, but at every real-time step. We compare the limited gradient schemes included in OpenFOAM with an improved limiter from the literature, testing the solver against dam-break and hydrostatic pressure benchmarks. This work opens OpenFOAM up to the method of artificial compressibility, breaking the mould of PIMPLE and harnessing high-resolution shock-capturing schemes that are easier to parallelise.
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Copyright (c) 2022 Shannon Leakey, Vassilis Glenis, Caspar Hewett
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